The Liberal Arts | Origin of the mediaeval university: Studia generalia 


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 Video ~ YouTube | Q & A | Lecture | Bibliography | Dialogue 

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  © Illo Humphrey, PhD | HDR •

• Mediævalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist | Concert-Baritone | 2024 •

• Research Fellow | UR PLURIELLES – LaPRIL | Université Bordeaux Montaigne | 33607 Pessac •

• Fellow | Board Member | ICONEA | University of London – Institute of Musical research | UK •

• Fellow | Member | Université Populaire Méroë-Africa | Paris (France) •

• •

• Director-Founder of La Bibliothèque Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Européenne •

• Director-Founder of the Colloquia Aquitana •

• Director-Founder of the Association Vox Nova •

 • •


• Affiliations •

• Member of the Tombouctou Manuscripts Project •

• Member of •

• Member of the International Boethius Society • 

 • Member of the Medieval Academy of America •

• Member of Musicologie Médiévale •

Member of APEMUTAM •

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The Liberal Arts,

The Origin of the Mediæval University, Studia generalia: 

a fundamentally humanitarian institution born out of the urban mediæval society

• •’s-Television-Lecture-on-Boethius • 

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This Lecture was given by Illo Humphrey, PhD-HDR,

Mediævalist |  Musicologist | Proto-Philologist, 

 at the University of Central Florida (UCF)

in the College of Health and Public Affairs,

under the auspices of the Department of Public Administration,

and organized by the Center for Public and Nonprofit Management (CPNM), 

on Thursday, the 18th of March, 2010. 

A modified version of this lecture was filmed and produced in the form of a DVD

by Orange TV | Vision TV in Orlando Florida, Wednesday, the 28th of April, 2010 •’s-Television-Lecture-on-Boethius

  ~  •  ~ 

Video - YouTube:  


Orange TV | Vision TV  | Orlando, Florida

Special Guest: Illo Humphrey, Ph.D.-HDR, Mediævalist | Musicologist  | Proto-Philologist

Host: Jim Downing, Ph. D. Candidate at the University of Central Florida  

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The Origin of the Mediæval University:

 A Conversation with Illo Humphrey, Ph.D.-HDR


Jim Downing • 



DVD Segment 1 (Part 1) :

DVD Segment 1 (Part 2) :

DVD Segment 2 (Part 1) :

DVD Segment 2 (Part 2) :

DVD Segment 3 (Part 1) :

DVD Segment 3 (Part 2) :

DVD Segment 4 (Part 1) :

DVD Segment 4 (Part 2) :

DVD Bibliography : 

DVD  Credits :        


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   Orange TV | Vision TV  

9860 Universal Boulevard | Orlando, Florida 32819  

Wednesday, April 28, 2010 ~ 9 a. m.  

Producer: Bill Suchy | Director: Greg Trent | |



   ~  •  ~ 


• 1st Segment : Boethius ~ Public Administrator par excellence •

(Public Administration = Civilization Management and Civilization Development)

• 1st Segment : Questions (Suggestions) :

(1) How can we make the connexion between Public Administration and Civilization Management (?)

(2) How do we organize such a vast field of research covering science, philosophy, ethics, etc. (?)

(3) Are there examples, where Philosophy is taught in and Public Administration Departments (?)

(4) How do we implement such interdisciplinary pedagogy in a Public Administration Department (?)

(5) What is the nuance between Civilization Management and Civilization Development  (?)

• 2nd Segment : Artes liberales ~ participate in cognitive intellectual hygiene •

• 2nd Segment : Questions (Suggestions) :

(1) What is the veritable origin and meaning of the term Artes liberales (?)

(2) What are the different disciplines included in Artes liberales (?)

(3) When did the term Artes liberales enter into the Latin language, and by which Latin writer (?)

(4) Are there Latin synonyms to Artes liberales (?)

(5) Were the Artes liberales always a sevenfold canon (?)

• 3rd Segment :  Origin of the Mediæval University | Studia generalia •  

(Studia generalia ~ universitas magistrorum ac scholarium uel discipulorum/discipularum)

• 3rd Segment : Questions (Suggestions) :

(1) Was the mediæval university always called “University” (?)

(2) Which is the oldest known mediæval university and what is its founding date (?)

(3) How was the mediæval university structured, what were the principal courses taught (?)

(4) Were there ever student uprisings or strikes in the early centuries of the mediæval university (?)

(5) Were there ever minority groups, such as Jews, who influenced the mediæval university (?)

• 4th Segment : Mediaeval University~Public Administration – Humanitarian concepts •

(The Mediæval University is a fundamentally humanitarian institution born out of the urban mediæval society, primitively known as Studia generalia. This humanitarian institution was designed for the maintenance of cognitive and intellectual hygiene, that is to say the maintenance of the delicate equilibrium between the two opposing forces: Knowledge and Ignorance. It was also designed for the protection and safeguard of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of humanity, and for the wise and well-balanced management and development of civilization. In short, the Mediæval University was created in order to become what may be appropriately called a General Culture Incubator).

• 4th Segment : Questions (Suggestions) :

(1) Why the choice of the word-concept: “cognitive and intellectual hygiene” (?)

(2) Why associate the mediæval university with the humanitarian mediæval hospital Hôtel-Dieu (?)

(3) Were there also learned women who prepared the birth of the mediæval university (?)

(4) Are there traces of Arab-Muslim influences in the development of the mediæval university (?)

(5) What exactly do you mean by a General Culture Incubator (?)


Nota bene (1): The above questions, corresponding to the 4 segments of the Lecture Boethius, the Liberal arts, the origin of the mediæval university: Studia generalia, a fundamentally humanitarian institution born out of the mediæval urban society, were drafted up by Illo Humphrey, Ph. D., at the request of  Mr. Bill Suchy, General Manager of Orange TV and Vision TV, in view of the DVD recording session of Wednesday, April 28, 2010. The said questions are submitted here for critical reading and  scientific-pedagogical utilisation by reseachers, teachers, readers, audiences, etc., who may feel free to make appropriate amendments, adaptations, and variations thereto.

    ~  •  ~

 © Illo Humphrey, PhD | HDR •

• Mediævalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist | Concert-Baritone | 2022 •

•  •

• Member of the International Boethius Society • 

 • Member of the Medieval Academy of America •

• Member of APEMUTAM •

• Member of the ADPC •

• Member of the ASDAL • 

 ~  •  ~

Περὶ Παιδείας 3

On the Origin of the mediæval university: Studia generalia,

a fundamentally humanitarian institution

born out of the urban mediæval society

• Illo Humphrey, Ph. D. | University of Central Florida (CPNM) | March 18, 2010 | Orlando, Florida •


[0] Plato in his treatise Τίμαιος ἢ περὶ Φύσεως πϚʹ B, πηʹ B (Tímaios or on Nature 86B, 88B), in discussing the concept of ἡ παιδεία (Paideia), within the framework of the wise management of knowledge and ignorance, considers ignorance itself the worst of all plagues, stating that ignorance is indeed a form of illness, which can lead to individual and collective cognitive dysfunction and even to individual and collective cognitive impairment. Indeed, Plato identifies two types of ignorance, namely: νοια (anoia : the absence of intelligence, the absence of knowledge), and μαθία (amathia : the absence of the desire to learn).  If this is true, ignorance is not just the lack of knowledge, but a dynamic and formidable force, which, if not held at bay, will provoke on large scale severe socio-cultural pathologies, complex patterns of varied types of criminality, developing into epidemic and even pandemic proportions. In this sense, Ignorance in the cognitive world can be compared with a state of non-hygiene, non-sanitation, in the physical world, which, if left unchecked, will rapidly lead to massive cognitive devastation, massive disease, massive loss of life, massive destruction of the environment, massive misery and suffering; ignorance being to the mind what pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic viruses are to the body. In this perspective then, the Greek term ἡ παιδεία, a veritable Leitmotiv in three important treatises by Plato: Republic or on Justice 30 Books (Πολιτεία περὶ Δικαίου Λʹ), Timaios or on Nature 40 Books (Τμαιος ἢ περὶ Φύσεως Мʹ), and Laws or Legislations 43 Books (Νόμοι Νομοθεσίαι ΜΓʹ), is in itself a fundamentally cultural-humanitarian concept, which concerns principally the wise management of knowledge and ignorance, that is to say the rigorous management of intellectual hygiene, in order to obtain a functional equilibrium between the two opposing forces of knowledge and ignorance.

[1] The mediæval university is above all an urban concept. It comes into being, generally, due to a combination of factors, among which are: demographic explosion of urban centres, political power mutations, meteorological conditions, technological progress, economic growth,  fluvial proximity, and, most importantly, a universal common language. In the context of mediæval Europe, the university evolved slowly from rural pre-Carolingian and Carolingian monastic and cathedral schools into a more and more urban structure, meeting the needs of a more and more complex urban society.  The study of urban mediæval demography is therefore closely related to that of the birth of mediæval schools and universities, whose evolution corresponds closely to the population growth of urban centres, that is to say cities. One observes then, in a heavily populated urban environment, schools and universities spring up more or less spontaneously, being the outgrowth of the multiple needs and aspirations of the population: agriculture and food production, spiritual and religious instruction, public and private instruction, exchange of ideas, general culture, intellectual and cognitive hygiene, public health, public sanitation, public assistance, public hygiene, sound government, sound law enforcement, sound economy, thriving industry, trade, commerce,  construction and technology, leisure, etc., coupled with the necessity of the wise management of all the complex needs and aspirations of collective urban centres. Indeed, between the years 1088 and 1288, the European mediæval universitiy grew so exponentially that it became an integral part of urban planning and public administration.

[2] Called in its first phase Studium generale | pl. Studia generalia, the European mediæval university’s function, just as that of the monastic and cathedral schools which preceded it, was the organization of education and general culture for the benefit of the ruling class and clergy, as well as for that of the ever-expanding populations, for children of modest or unprivileged origins. And, in the same manner that the mediæval hospitals, infirmaries, and clinics were largely founded and organized by religious orders for the maintenance of public health and hygiene, the classical example of which is the ancient Parisian hospital called Hôtel-Dieu (Hostelarium Dei: Hostel of God), founded in the year 651 by the Bishop of Paris Saint Landry (Landericus Parisiorum Ecclesiae Episcopus 656), so it was with the mediæval schools and universities, generally founded also by religious orders (Benedictine, Cistercian, and, as of the 13th century, by the so-called Mendicant Orders [Orders of holy beggars, or holy Friars], namely: Franciscans (ca. 1209), Carmelites (ca. 1214)Dominicans (ca. 1215), Servites (ca. 1233), Augustinians (ca. 1256), etc.), whose basic function was the maintenance of intellectual and cognitive hygiene, as well as the protection and safeguard of the tangible and intangible cultural-humanitarian heritage, that is to say the preservation of public education and general culture for an ever growing urban population. Thus, the function of both school-university and hospital in the mediæval society was fundamentally cultural-humanitarian in nature and in scope, the hospital’s role being the wise management of public health, public hygiene, public assistance, the university’s being the wise management of intellectual and cognitive hygiene, that is to say the wise management of the delicate equilibrium between the two opposing forces of knowledge and ignorance. Evolving then from its primitive name, Studium generale | pl. Studia generalia, of the 11th and 12th centuries into the Uniuersitas magistrorum atque scholarium uel discipulorum | [discipularum] (that is to say the Community | Guild of Masters and Students or Disciples | [Male and Female] of the 13th century, and finally Uniuersitas as of the beginning of the 14th century, the European mediaeval university, just as the mediæval hospital Hôtel-Dieu (Latin: Hostelarium Dei | English: Hostel of God), became little by little one of the principal actors in civilization management and civilization development.

[3] 8 Observations on School and University in the context of Public Administration, that is to say Civilization Management and Civilization Development:

• School and University are principal partners of the important humanitarian structures, large and small, such as: the UN – UNESCO – UNICEF – the CCFD – Caritas International – Amnesty International – MSF – MDM –  HRW – NAPS – ADRA – IRLA, etc., in the protection and the safeguard of the tangible and intangible cultural-humanitarian heritage of humanity (including religions, ethical-moral virtues, laws, fundamental ideas, schools of thought, the liberal arts and sciences, oral history, written history, languages, literature, theater, poetry, music, dance, mime, pantomime, sports, architecture, arts and crafts, cinema, commerce, trade, finance, agriculture, food sovereignty, aquatic and land environments, public health and hygiene, human rights, etc.), that is to say the protection of the memory, and the safeguard of the fundamental values of a given civilization, taking into account, of course, the extraordinary yet very delicate genome of both the flora and the fauna

• School and University are principal partners in the advancement and stimulation of fundamental research •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of wisdom and hygiene •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of temperance and beauty •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of justice and power •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of courage and wealth •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of happiness and suffering •

• School and University are principal partners in the management of the sevenfold canon of the liberal arts, of the supplementary arts of the cognitive process, stereometry, architecture, agriculture, and of the  humanitarian arts of medicine, law, human rights, etc.:

Cf. Πλάτων, Νόμοι ἢ Νομοθεσίαι (Pláton, Laws or Legislations) 631-C;  Paris, BnF, Fonds grec 1807, 9th c., f. 157v°; cf. Henri Omont, (ed.), Facsimile of Paris, BnF, Fonds grec 1807 in 2 Volumes, Paris, 1908; W. C. Greene, (ed.), Scholia Platonicacontulerunt atque investigaverunt Fredericus de Forest Allen, Ionnes Burnet, Carolus Pomeroy Parker; omnia recognita praefatione indicibusque instructa ed. Guilielmus Chase Greene, American Philological Association, Monograph VIII, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania, 1938 | reprint, Hildesheim (Olms Verlag), 1988, p. 303; cf. Πλάτων, Πολιτεία περὶ Δικαίου, Z’ (Pláton, Republic, Book VII: § 522c à § 531c); cf. I. Hadot, Arts libéraux et philosophie…, p. 71 •

[4] University of Paris: The 4 + 1  Nations: France | Normandy | Picardy | England | and later Alemannia [Germany] •

[5] University of Paris ~ Statistics: Approximately 76 different Colleges comprised the Studia generalia-University of Paris in its incipient period, each college having, on an average, between 15 and 25 members •

[6] University of Paris ~ Organization of the University:

Faculty of the Arts (Facultas artium): prerequisite studies| Faculty of Theology | Faculty of the Decree [Canon Law] | Faculty of Medicine •

[7] University of Paris ~ Lectio = Reading | Disputatio = Debate | Praedicatio = Preaching / Teaching | Determinatio = Examination •

[8] University of Paris ~ Faculty of the [Liberal] Arts (Quaduvium / Trivium) | Some of the principal subjects: Ethics-Morality (the Highest human and divine Good) | The Substance-Essence of Number | The 10 Categories | The 5 Universals •

[9] Thus, in the framework of this brief fundamental research on Boethius, the liberal arts, the origin of the mediæval university, Studia generalia, we begin to look at the concept of school-university in a new light, and we begin to perceive its primitive and fundamental role and function in the wise management of civilizations, which is non other than that of maintaining, as Plato advocates in his greatest treatise, Laws, the highest level of intellectual hygiene as possible, and this in order to hold at a reasonable and functional proportion the formidable and devastating force of ignorance.  • Explicit


Angotti (Claire), Brinzei (Monica), Teeuwen (Mariken), Portraits de maîtres offerts à Olga Weijers, Contributors: Claire Angotti (Reims), Manlio Bellomo (Catania), Luca Bianchi (Vercelli), Laura Biondi (Padova), Philippe Bobichon (Paris), E.P. Bos (Leyden), Monica Brinzei (Paris), Steve F. Brown (Boston), Dragos Calma (Bonn), Jean Ceylerette (Lille), William J. Courtenay (Madison), Gilbert Dahan (Paris), Sophie Delmas (Paris), Silvia Donati (Bonn), Pascale Duhamel (Ottawa), Anne-Marie Eddé (Paris), Cédric Giraud (Nancy), Nathalie Gorochov (Créteil), Anne Grondeux (Paris), Jacqueline Hamesse (Louvain-la-Neuve), Roland Hissette (Cologne), Louis Holtz (Paris), C.H.J.M. Kneepkens (Groningen), Steven J. Livesey (Oklahoma), Claude Lafleur (Québec), José Meirinhos (Porto), Donatella Nebbiai (Paris), Jennifer Ottman (Standford), Dominique Poirel (Paris), Lambert-Marie de Rijk (Maastricht), Jean-Pierre Rothschild (Paris), Christopher D. Schabel (Nicosia), Bénédicte Sère (Paris), Colette Sirat (Paris), Joke Spruyt (Maastricht), Iulia Szekely (Cluj-Napoca), Mariken Teeuwen (La Haye), Annemieke R. Verboon (Paris), Jacques Verger (Paris), Graziella Federici Vescovini (Florence), Rega Wood (Stanford), Irene Zavattero (Freiburg) • Fédération Internationale des Instituts d’Études Médiévales, Textes et Études du Moyen Âge | 65 ; Brepols Publishers | Begijnhof 67 | B-2300 Turnhout (Belgium) | Porto 2012 ; ca. 500 pages | ISBN: 978-2-503-54801-2 | http://www.brepols.net

Baldwin (James W.), Masters, Princes and Merchants: The Social Views of Peter the Chanter and his Circle, Princeton University Press, 1970 •

Boutry (Monique) (ed.), An Edition of the Long Version of Peter the Chanter’s Verbum Abbreviatum Petri Cantoris Parisiensis. Verbum adbreviatum. Textus conflatus, Corpus Christianorum. Continuatio Mediaevalis  (CCCM), 196, Turnhout (Brepols) 2004 •

Bowers (Barbara S.) (ed.), The medieval hospital and medical practice, cf. Chapter 11, M. K. K. Yearl, “Medieval monsatic Customaries on minuti and infirmi”, p. 175-194 • Nota bene (2): minuti = illness, infirmi = malady; cf. Chapter 15, Maria A. D’Aronco, “The Benedictine rule and the Care for the Sick: The Plan of St. Gall and Anglo-Saxon England”, Hamshire, UK, 2007, p. 235-238 •

Coyecque (E. L. N. J.), L’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris au Moyen Âge, 2 volumes, Paris (Butler 944. 2P21 C83), 1889-18891 : •

Evans (Gillian Rosemary), The language and logic of the Bible: The earlier Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1984, p. 8-10, 27-35 •  Nota bene (3): Lectio | disputatio | praedicatio: whose origin is attributed to Pierre le Chantre (Petrus Cantor | Peter the Chanter: †22 September, 1197), Professor of Theology and Music at the Cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris, were the basic exercises of the Studia generalia

Giannelos (Kalli), Dimension politique de la paideia musicale chez Platon à travers la République et les Lois, Masters I Thesis, Université de Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne), UFR de Philosophie, Chapter 1: p. 14 (notes 20, 21), Paris, June 2009 •

Imbert (J.) et Mollat (M.), Histoire des hôpitaux en France. Toulouse, 1982 •

Lafleur (Claude), “ ‘Les guides de l’étudiant’ de la Faculté des Arts de l’Université de Paris au XIIIe siècle”, in Philosophy and Learning. Universities in the Middle Ages, M. J. F. M. Hoenen, Jakob Hans Josef Schneider, Georg Wieland  (eds.), Leiden (Brill), 1995, p. 137-200 •

Le Goff (Jacques), The Birth of Purgatory. English transltion by Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago (University of Chicago Press), 1984 •

Liber Decanorum Facultatis Philosophicae Universitatis Pragensis (1367-1585), Pars I, Prague, 1830, cf. Rubrica II,16 (1380): nullus magistrandus, licentiandus, baccalauriandus deberet in determinatione sua positionem suam legere interius de carta uel libro ([no candidate preparing for the] master [of arts] degree, [no candidate preparing for the] licentiate degree, [no candidate preparing for the] bachelor [of arts] degreeis allowed, during his [or her] examination, to read [or consult] his [or her] subject matter, [contained] in the interior of [any] paper], card or book [whatsoever]); cf.  Olga Weijers, “Les règles d’examen dans les universités médiévales”, in Philosophy and Learning. Universities in the Middle Ages, M. J. F. M. Hoenen, Jakob Hans Josef Schneider, Georg Wieland  (eds.), Education & Society in the Middle Ages & Renaissance Series, Vol. 6, ISBN 9004102124, 435 pages, Leiden (Brill), 1995, p. 202-203, see note 4 and note 9 •

Masi (Michael), Boethius and the Liberal Arts. A collection of Essays, (Utah Studies in Literature & Linguistics, vol. 18), Bern, Frankfurt-am-Main, Las Vegas, 1981 •

McHugh (T. J.), “Establishing Medical Men at the Paris Hôtel-Dieu, 1500-1715”, in Social History of Medicine, 19/2 (2006), p. 209-224 •

Migne (Jacques-P.aul (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completes. Series latina, Petrus Cantor, opera, Vol. 205, col. 9-554  •

• Nicholas (David), The Growth of the Medieval City From Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century, London, New York (Longman), 1997, xviii, 413 pages, illustrations, maps, 23 cm.; Hardback: ISBN13: 9780582299071 | Paperback: ISBN10: 0582299063 • Nota bene (4): “The first part of David Nicholas’s massive two-volume study of the medieval city, this book is a major achievement in its own right. (It is also fully self-sufficient, though many readers will want to use it with its equally impressive sequel which is being published simultaneously.) In it, Professor Nicholas traces the slow regeneration of urban life in the early medieval period, showing where and how an urban tradition had survived from late antiquity, and when and why new urban communities began to form where there was no such continuity. He charts the different types and functions of the medieval city, its interdependence with the surrounding countryside, and its often fraught relations with secular authority. The book ends with the critical changes of the late thirteenth century that established an urban network that was strong enough to survive the plagues, famines and wars of the 14th and 15th centuries”:;

• Nicholas (David), The Later Medieval City: 1300-1500 (History of Urban Society in europe), London (Longman), 1997. xiv + 430 pages; Hardback: ISBN 978-0-582-01318-6; Paperback: ISBN 978-0-582-01317-9:

• Novikoff (Alex J.)The Culture of Disputation in Medieval Europe: Pedagogy, Practice, and Performance, Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania Press), 2013, 336 pages, 15 Illustrations, Cloth bound 2013 | ISBN 978-0-8122-4538-7 • Ebook 2013 | ISBN 978-0-8122-0863-4 • Table of Contents: Introduction • Chapter 1: The Socratic Inheritance • Chapter 2: Anselm, Dialogue, and the Rise of Scholastic Disputation • Chapter 3: Scholastic Practices of the Twelfth-Century Renaissance • Chapter 4: Aristotle and the Logic of Debate • Chapter 5: The Institutionalization of Disputation: Universities, Polyphony, and Preaching • Chapter 6: Drama and Publicity in Jewish-Christian Disputations • Conclusions: The Medieval Culture of Disputation • Notes • Bibliography • Index • Acknowledgments: •

Quynn (D.), “A Medieval Picture of the Hôtel-Dieu of Paris”, in Bulletin of the History of Medicine 12 (1942), p. 118–28 •

Weijers (Olga), ed., La ‘disputatio’ à la Faculté des arts de Paris (1200-1350 environ), Turnhout, 1995 •

Weijers (Olga), “Les règles d’examen dans les universités médiévales”, in Philosophy and Learning. Universities in the Middle Ages, M. J. F. M. Hoenen, Jakob Hans Josef Schneider, Georg Wieland  (eds.), Education & Society in the Middle Ages & Renaissance Series, Vol. 6, ISBN 9004102124, 435 pages, Leiden (Brill), 1995, p. 201-223  (n. 4, n. 9) •

Weijers (Olga),“De la joute dialectique à la dispute scolastique”, in Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris, 2000, p. 508-518 •

Weijers (Olga), La  “disputatio” dans les Facultés des arts au Moyen Âge, Turnhout (Brepols), 2002, 383 pages, ISBN 2-503-51356-5 •

• Weijers (Olga), “Quelques observations sur les divers emplois du terme disputatio”, in Itinéraires de la raison, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2005, p. 35-48 •

• Weijers (Olga), “The medieval disputatio”, in Hora est ! On Dissertations, Douwe D. Breimer, Jos Damen, Joseph S. Freedman, Marten Hofstede, Jet Katgert, Trudi Noordermeer, Olga Weijers (eds.), see pages 23-29, ISSN 0921–9293, Vol. 71, (Catalogue of an exhibition in Leiden University Library, December 8, 2005 – February 4, 2006) Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden, Leiden, 2005:

• Weijers (Olga), Queritur utrum. Recherches sur la ‘disputatio’ dans les universités médiévales, Turnhout (Brepols), 2009 (Studia Artistarum, 20), 308 pages: ISBN 978-2-503-53195-3 •

 Weijers (Olga), Études sur la Faculté des arts dans les universités médiévales (Studia Artistarum 28 :, 426 pages, Format: 156 x 234 mm, Turnhout (Brepols), 2011, ISBN: 978-2-503-54191-4, Languages: French, English Paperback (Livre broché), Retail price: 60,00€ (excl. tax) • Nota bene (5): « Ce recueil comprend dix-neuf articles concernant divers aspects de l’enseignement à la Faculté des arts au moyen âge. Ils ont été publiés, depuis une vingtaine d’années environ, dans des revues, des actes de colloques et autres volumes collectifs. La dispersion de ces publications rend leurs liens réciproques assez opaques et il a semblé utile de les réunir en un volume. • Tous les articles repris ici sont suivis de notes qui donnent des corrections, des compléments de bibliographie, etc. L’un d’entre eux (le numéro XIV) est suivi du texte d’une communication dont le thème est dans ses grandes lignes le même et qui n’est pas encore parue (XIVa). Une autre communication qui n’a pas été publiée a été reprise sous le numéro XIX. • Les articles ont été organisés en six sections, selon les six thèmes qui ont retenu mon attention ces dernières années. • Le premier, l’étude du vocabulaire, remonte à une époque plus lointaine, où mes travaux de lexicographie m’ont inspiré des recherches sur l’origine des termes techniques de la vie intellectuelle au moyen âge. • Le deuxième thème, les examens et les cérémonies dans les universités médiévales, est issu du premier et témoigne, comme les autres, de mon intérêt grandissant pour la vie intellectuelle, en particulier dans les universités médiévales. • L’étude du vocabulaire mène non seulement à la réalité historique, mais aussi aux textes témoignant de cette réalité et de l’activité intellectuelle qui s’y exprime. Ces textes n’ont pas seulement un contenu, mais aussi une forme qui n’est pas le fruit du hasard et qui a une influence sur le contenu même. C’est pourquoi le sujet des genres littéraires m’a semblé important à explorer, brièvement ou, dans la seconde étude de la troisième section, comme un moyen de classification de textes divers traitant du même sujet. [La quatrième section analyse le genre « commentaire » à but pédagogique, qui varie en fonction des régions et en fonction des époques.] • La cinquième section, sur la disputatio, rassemble quelques études qui complètent les monographies que j’ai publiées sur ce sujet : La ‘disputatio’ à la Faculté des arts de Paris (1200-1350 environ) et La ‘disputatio’ dans les Facultés des arts au moyen âge, parues respectivement en 1995 et 2002. • Finalement, la sixième section  réunit quelques études centrées sur les disciplines enseignées: la façon dont la lecture des textes de base s’est transformée graduellement en discipline systématique, la place qu’avait sans doute la musique dans l’enseignement de la Faculté des arts, et, en dernier, un exemple de l’influence de la logique sur une tout autre discipline, à savoir le droit. • Les index permettront un usage plus aisé de ce volume et fourniront pour ainsi dire une clef d’accès à ces articles restés relativement isolés » : •

Weijers (Olga), Verger (Jacques), Les débuts de l’enseignement universitaire à Paris (1200-1245 environ), (Studia Artistarum 38 :, 439 pages, 3 black & white Illustrations, 37 colour Illustrations, Format: 156 x 234 mm, Turnhout (Brepols), 2013, ISBN: 978-2-503-55154-8, Languages: French, English, Paperback (Livre broche), Retail price: 65,00€ (excl. tax) • Nota bene (6): « L’un des éléments les plus marquants de l’histoire intellectuelle du monde occidental est la naissance de l’institution que nous appelons encore aujourd’hui « université ». Sur l’émergence et l’histoire institutionnelle des premières universités, Bologne et Paris, beaucoup a été écrit. Cependant, la première période de l’Université de Paris, à partir de sa naissance vers 1200 jusqu’à 1245 environ, est encore mal connue ; surtout du point de vue de l’enseignement, des textes et des maîtres, la réalité universitaire reste encore assez insaisissable. Dans ce volume, qui réunit les actes d’un colloque organisé en septembre 2012, nous avons voulu faire le point sur cette première période de l’Université de Paris, celle de la naissance et de l’enfance de l’université. Rassemblant quasiment toutes les facettes de l’enseignement à l’Université de Paris, après une mise en contexte historique et institutionnelle, le volume vise à présenter un exemple de ce que l’on pourrait appeler l’histoire de la pensée, pour une période restreinte, bien sûr, mais aussi une période cruciale pour l’histoire intellectuelle du moyen âge • Table of Contents : Section I. Le contexte : John Baldwin, « Le contexte politique et institutionnel »; Jacques Verger, « Que sait-on des institutions universitaires parisiennes avant 1245? »; Nathalie Gorochov, « Le milieu universitaire à Paris dans la première moitié du XIIIe » • Section II. Grammaire et logique : Anne Grondeux, « Le trivium à la faculté des arts de Paris avant 1245. Quelques questions méthodologiques »; Sten Ebbesen, « Logical Texts. 12th or 13th Century? Paris or Elsewhere? »; Christopher Lucken, « La « Biblionomia » de Richard de Fournival : un programme d’enseignement par le livre. Le cas du trivium » • Section III. Philosophie : Ruedi Imbach, « Introduction »; Luca Bianchi, « Couper, distinguer, compléter : trois stratégies de lecture d’Aristote à la Faculté des arts »; Silvia Donati, « Pseudepigrapha in the “Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri Baconi”? The Commentaries on the Physics and the Metaphysics »; Irene Zavattero, « La philosophie pratique – éthique et politique » • Section IV. Théologie : Gilbert Dahan, « Introduction »; Gilbert Dahan, « L’enseignement de l’Ecriture : des écoles à l’université »; Riccardo Saccenti, « Questions et Sentences: l’enseignement entre la fin du XIIe et le début du XIIIe siècle »; Marta Borgo, « L’enseignement des Sentences pendant la première moitié du XIIIe siècle » • Section V. Droit : Anne Lefebvre-Teillard, « Les débuts de l’enseignement universitaire à Paris : le droit. Introduction » ; Anne Lefebvre-Teillard, « Du Décret aux décrétales : l’enseignement du droit canonique au sein de l’école parisienne (fin XIIe – début XIIIe siècle) »; Chris Coppens, « Le droit romain à Paris au début du XIIIe, introduction et interdiction » • Section VI. Varia : Charles Vulliez, « Un « rhéteur » médiéval et son enseignement « parisien » : Pons le Provençal » ; Graziella Federici Vescovini, « La transformation des arts du « Quadrivium » dans l’enseignement des Facultés des Arts et de la Philosophie au commencement du XIIIe siècle » ; Laurence Moulinier-Brogi, « Deux ou trois choses que l’on sait d’elle : la faculté de médecine parisienne et ses débuts » ; Ayelet Even-Ezra, « «Qui predicat magister est» : Teaching and Preaching in Paris according to Gualterus de Castro Theodorici (Gauthier de Château Thierry) » • Conclusions par Jacques Verger • Index » :

Wickersheimer (Ernest), “Médecins et chirurgiens dans les hôpitaux du Moyen Âge”, in Janus 32, 1926, pages 1-11 •

 Zavattero (Irene), Rezensionen – Besprechungen – Comptes rendus, p. 1-5, Olga Weijers, Études sur la Faculté des arts dans les universités médiévales (Studia Artistarum 28:, Turnhout (Brepols), 2011, 426 pages, ISBN 978‐2‐503‐54191‐4: • Nota bene (7): Dixit Irene Zavattero, « Le volume de Olga Weijers, Études sur la Faculté des arts dans les universités médiévales recueille dix-neuf articles, organisés en six sections, concernant divers aspects de l’enseignement à la Faculté des arts au moyen âge. La vie intellectuelle dans les facultés des arts des principales universités médiévales (Paris, Oxford, Cologne, Vienne, Bologne) est le cœur de l’intérêt qui anime ces articles. L’étude du vocabulaire, sujet de la première section (17–92), aide à la compréhension correcte des concepts qui caractérisent cette vie intellectuelle et permet de mieux saisir la réalité historique dont ces termes sont issus. Les divers grades d’examens et les cérémonies nécessaires pour l’obtention de la licence d’enseignement, thème abordé dans la deuxième section (93–142), décrivent les conditions de travail et le niveau intellectuel des maîtres et des étudiants. Cette activité intellectuelle est attestée par les textes produits à la Faculté des arts, textes qui n’ont pas seulement un contenu mais aussi une forme précise dérivant, le plus souvent, des exigences d’enseignement.  Selon la forme qui les caractérise, les textes appartiennent à des genres littéraires, sujet exploré dans la troisième section du volume (143–190). Parmi ces genres, le plus courant est celui des commentaires, analysé dans la quatrième section (191–290), un genre qui montre des caractéristiques variables selon les régions et les époques, en témoignant qu’il existait, dans les modes de lecture des textes, des différences remarquables entraînées par plusieurs facteurs, dont l’un était le différent but pédagogique. La tâche d’approfondir les problèmes doctrinaux était accomplie par l’une des méthodes les plus répandues de l’enseignement universitaire, la disputatio, sujet de la cinquième section (291–349), qui atteste de l’évolution de la lecture du texte de base vers l’étude indépendante de la doctrine et qui donnera lieu à la constitution des disciplines théoriques. Les disciplines enseignées à la Faculté des arts, thème de la dernière section du volume (351–409), révèlent l’enjeu de la vie intellectuelle réglée par les statuts universitaires et les techniques de transmission de la connaissance adoptées par les maîtres. » • cf. | 4-III-2014 •

Zavattero (Irene), « Éthique et politique à la Faculté des arts de Paris dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle », in Les débuts de l’enseignement universitaire à Paris (1200-1245 environ), Jacques Verger, Olga Weijers (eds.), (Studia Artistarum 38 :, Turnhout (Brepols), 2013, 439 pages, cf. pages 205-245, ISBN: 978-2-503-55154-8:  • Nota bene (8): Dixit Irene Zavattero, « Les classifications des sciences produites par les maîtres ès-arts de la première moitié du XIIIe siècle proposent la division classique, qui traverse tout le Moyen Âge, de la philosophie pratique en éthique, politique et économique. Bien que les maîtres aient pu montrer qu’ils avaient connaissance de l’enjeu doctrinal de chaque science, les règlements statutaires ainsi que les textes issus de l’enseignement des arts témoignent bien que la seule branche de la philosophie pratique sur laquelle ils donnaient des cours dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle, était l’éthique. Cela est dû à la réception précoce, bien que fragmentaire et limitée aux trois premiers livres, de l’Éthique à Nicomaque (EN) et à l’absence, à l’époque, de traductions de la Politique d’Aristote et de l’Économique pseudo-aristotélicienne, qui ne furent connues respectivement qu’après 1260 et 1280. Même si le texte d’Aristote faisait défaut, en ce qui concerne la politique, les maîtres n’étaient pas totalement dépourvus de concepts et de sources. En commentant la version fragmentaire de l’EN, ils avaient accès à quelques conceptions aristotéliciennes grâce aux références explicites à la politique et au rôle social de l’homme contenues dans le premier livre. De plus, d’autres textes, qui circulaient probablement à l’époque à Paris, comme le De officiis de Cicéron, pouvaient fournir, même indirectement, par le biais des auteurs du XIIe siècle qui les avaient utilisés, des données utiles à la réflexion politique. D’autre part, en présentant des classifications des sciences, les maîtres avaient l’occasion de définir la politique et d’en préciser l’enjeu doctrinal avec l’aide des divisions des sciences du XIIe siècle, comme celle de Dominique Gundisalvi, qu’ils semblent connaître. » • cf. | 4-III-2014 •

Studia generalia, Universitas magistrorum atque scholarium uel discipulorum | [discipularumque] First Universities in Europe: Bologna (ca.1088), Paris (ca. 1150 • 1208-1210), Montpellier (ca. 1137 – 1160 • 1289), Oxford (ca.1167 • 1249), Reggio Emilia – Modena (ca.1175), Salerno (9th c. • 12th c. [?]), Vicenza (ca. 1204),  Cambridge (ca. 1209 • 1284), Palencia, Spain (ca. 1212) • Nota bene (9): the second date indicates the date of recognition by papal bull • Mordechai Feingold, History of universities, XVI/1, XVII, XVIII/1, XVIII/2, XIX, XX/1, XX/2, XXI/1, XXI/2, XXII/1, XXII/1, XXIII/2, Oxford, 2000-2008 • Kimberly Georgedes, “Religion, Education and the role of Government in Medieval Universities: lessons learned or lost?”, in Forum on Public Policy, Vol. 2, n° 1, 2006: • Walter Ruegg, Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (eds.), A History of the University in Europe, Vol. I: University in the Middle Ages, , Cambridge University Press, 1991 • 2003; contibutors: Walter Ruegg, Jacques Verger, Paolo Nardi, Aleksander Gieysztor, Rainer Christoph Schwinges, Peter Moraw, Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Gordon Leff, John North, Nancy Siraisi, Antonio García Y. García, Monika Asztalos • Olaf Pedersen, The first Universities. Studium Generale and the origins of University Education in Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 10 chapters, Index of names, 307 pages • Alan B. Cobban, The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization, London (Methuen & Company, Ltd.), 1975 • George Makdisi, “The scholastic Method in the medieval Education: an Inquiry into its Origins in Laws and Theology”, in Speculum N° 49 (October, 1974), p. 640-661 • Hastings Rashdall (1858–1924), The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. I. Salerno. Bologna. Paris; Vol. II, part 1. Italy. Spain. France. Germany. Scotland, etc.; Vol. II, part 2. English universities. Student life, Oxford, 1895 (17 editions: 1895-1951) • Friedrich Heinrich Seuse [Suso] Denifle (1844-†1905, O. P. = Ordo Praedicatorum, i. e. the Dominican Order): Die Entstehung der Universitäten des Mittelalters bis 1400, Berlin, 1885; Chartularium Universitatis parisiensis, Paris, Vol. I (1200-1286): 1889 | Graz, 1956; Vol. II (1286-1350): 1891; Vol. III (1350-1394): 1894; Vol. IV (1394-1452): 1897; Les universités françaises au Moyen Âge, Paris, 1892 •

© Illo Humphrey, PhD | HDR •

• Mediævalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist | Concert-Baritone | 2022 •

•  •

~ • ~


Dialogus :

 • This authentic oral dialogue of 18~III~2010, engaged with graduate students and Professors at the

University of Central Florida’s Center for Public and Nonprofit Management (CPNM),

was reconstituted in written form by Illo Humphrey,  April 5, 2010, in Orlando, Florida •

• •


(¶0) Illo | Lecture: The university is fundamentally an urban cultural-humanitarian concept, whose role, and function, is to be a major partner in Public Administration, that is to say in Civilization Management and Civilization Development; this partnership corresponds to what is known today as “Social Capital and Cultural Capital” (cf. Lyda Judson Hanifan: “The rural School Community Center”, in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 67, 1916, p. 130-138; Lyda Judson Hanifan:  “The Community Center”, Boston, Silver-Burdett Publishers, 1920; Pierre Bourdieu: La distiction. Critique social du jugdment, Paris (Editions du Minuit), 1979; Pierre Bourdieu: “Le capital social”, in Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, n° 31, 1980; Robert D. Putnam:Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital”, in Journal of Democracy, 1995; Robert D. Putnam: E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century, 2007). Public Policy is designed to fix things pertaining to Public Administration, and Public Administration in turn is designed to be the guardian of a well-functioning civil society. Then, as one observes on a larger scale, an ensemble of actors go into the making of multiple and global public policies, public administrations, and civil societies, all of which are designed, by definition, to oversee the wise management and the wise development of civilization. Boethius, himself a high-ranking Public Administrator, Educator and Statesman, understood, of course, these concepts in detail and in depth.

(¶1) Commentary | Question: While I do not disagree, I do think that the term-concept “civilization management” is somewhat vast to make a fair comparison with Public Administration. How can we make the connexion between the two (?)  How do we organize such a vast field of research and pedagogy (?)

(¶2) Illo | Response (1): All societies of a given period tend to have the same problems to solve, to repair, and to manage. Thus, the role, and function, of Public Administration is to manage the diverse problems which occur within the society, and, more often than not, it must be prepared to improvise intelligent and long-lasting solutions for acute emergencies. Public Administration is therefore by definition “civilization management” on a local, regional, and national level, and “civilization development” is the concerted and coordinated effort of global partners who work together to find solutions to problems which are common to us all. Just as the creation of the mediæval Hôtel-Dieu (Hostel of God, i.e. Hospital) ensured the maintenance of Public Health, Public Sanitation, Public Assistance, and Public Hygiene in the mediæval urban environment, so it was with the Scholae (Schools), Collegia (Colleges), and Studia generalia (Universities), which ensured the maintenance of the intellectual and cognitive hygiene, and the protection and safeguard of the tangible and intangible cultural-humanitarian heritage of the mediæval society.

(¶3) Illo | Response (2): This vast field of research and pedagogy is of course by definition pluridisciplinary and interdisciplinary. The organization of such a field implies then of the mobilization of the entire social capital, that is to say the grouping together of different departments-schools-colleges-universities, cultural-humanitarian-guilds, business-association-guilds, for-profit and non-profit-enterprises, state-and-federal-agencies, etc., of a given educational structure in order to coordinate research, documentation, pedagogy, internships, employment, etc., this is the essence of Public Administration, this is the essence of local-regional-national civilization management and development.

(¶4) Commentary | Question: I see more clearly now what you mean.  In other words, you’re saying that the underpinnings, that is to say the foundations of public administration methods and research, civilization management and development techniques are essentially philosophical, and that in Antiquity and in the Mediaeval period the fundamental research on civilization management was done mostly by philosophers.

(¶5) Illo | Response: Precisely. The tradition of wisdom literature offers us several examples of this, namely: the Book of Job (איוב, Standard Hebrew: Sefer Iyyov; Tiberian Hebrew: Sefer Iyyob; Arabic: أيّوب Ayyūb) of the Old Testament, Plato’s Republic (Πολιτεία περὶ Δικαίου  Λʹ, Republic or On Justice 30 Books), Plato’s Laws (Νόμοι ἢ Νομοθεσίαι  ΜΓʹ, Laws or Legislations 43 Books), the De ordine II,7: 24, II,8: 25 by Aurelius Augustinus, the Consolatio Philosophiae by Boethius etc., are all designed to guide Public Administration in its delicate task of wise civilisation management and development.

(¶6) Commentary | Question: I agree fully with the philosophical approach you propose concerning the role and function of Public Administration, furthermore, I am in full agreement with the concepts “civilization management” and “civilization development”. Indeed, in the case of Turkish universities, for example, philosophy courses are always a part of the curriculum of the Department of Public Administration. Here at UCF, unfortunately, the philosophical dimension of Public Administration has not as yet been brought into focus. What do you suggest that we do in order to bring into perspective the two natural partners: Philosophy and Public Administration, and how can we remediate this situation (?).

(¶7) Illo | Response: In a first phase, I suggest the creation of structures and organizations in the form of on- and off-campus extra-curricular activities, such as: debates, lectures, discussion groups, clubs, guilds, associations, learned societies, art exhibitions, poetry and musical recitals,  etc., in order to render the UCF milieu attentive to the problem. Then, once the entire community has become acutely aware of the importance of the close partnership between Philosophy and Public Administration, one can create a dialogue with the governing bodies of the University, in order to elaborate new courses and seminars based on this new approach to civilization management and development. The courses and seminars in philosophy could then be tailor made for the Department of Public Administration at the University of Central Florida, and could become the model and perfect template for other schools and universities. This approach, to be sure, will yield good fruits.   


(¶8) Illo | Lecture: artes liberales means originally the cycle of disciplines and studies designed for the education and general culture of free citizens, in Greek: “αἱ λευθέριοι τέχναι”, as opposed to “αἱ βάναυσοι τέχναι”, that is to say the cycle of disciplines designed for the training of skilled labourers and artisans. The canon of the Liberal Arts is divided into two categories:

(a) Quadruvium [Quadrivium]: ars arithmetica | ars musicaars geometrica | ars astronomica

(b) Trivium: ars grammaticaars dialectia-logicaars rhetorica

Commentary | Question: I see nothing in the scientific-intellectual landscape of the traditional liberal arts pertaining to nature; this leaves me perplex. Is this normal (?).

(¶9) Illo | Response: Now, that is a perfect pedagogical question, which allows for the perfect and spontaneous pedagogical answer. Indeed, as this lecture-dialogue would have it, and as your cognitive process has instinctively guided you to ask that pertinent question, it is altogether evident that the sevenfold canon of the liberal arts is in no wise complete, but only a representative ensemble of disciplines coming out of Antiquity (Cicero, De oratore III,32), whose reason for being is to provide adequate education and general culture in the framework of civilization management and development. Remember, in Greek and Roman Antiquity, the canon of the liberal arts, called in the Greek language ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία or αἱ λευθέριοι τέχναι and in Latin artes liberales, studia liberalia, or, humanitas, eruditio institutioque in bonas artes, was a flexible, non-fixed cycle of studies, and included such disciplines as law, ethics-morality, stereometrics (measuring of solid objects), ars medica (cf. Γαληνός [Klaudios (?)] Galinos, Pergame, today Bergama, Turkey, *131 – Rome, 201-216, personal physician to Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, Septimus Severus, ed. C. G. Kühn, Opera omnia, 21 Volumes, Leipzig, 1821-1833), agricultura (Marcus Terentius Varro, *116 – 27 BCE, Rerum rusticarum libri III [On Agricultural things in Three Books]), architectura, etc. (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, *ca. 90 – ca. 20 BCE, De architectura [On architecture], I,1,12). Then, gradually, in the 4th and 5th centuries a. D., the liberal arts became, under the authority of the treatise De ordine II,7: 24, II,8: 25 by Aurelius Augustinus (Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in North Africa, today Annaba, Algeria, *354 – 430), the fixed sevenfold canon of science, philosophy, and pedagogy which was the basis of the school-university curriculum of the entire post-Roman, Carolingian, and post-Carolingian periods all the way down to the Rinascimento, that is to say the Renaissance.

Nota bene (10): The word-concept “canon” comes from the Greek word: κανών, τοῦ κανόνος, Latin: regula, monochordum (Εὐκλείδης Γέλας, ca. 275 BCE,  Κατατομὴ κανόνος: Eukleidis, Diuisio regulæ = Euclid of Gela, Division of the monochord). “Canon” in English means: rule, rule of thumb, criterion, ruler, “yardstick”, in French: la règle, in German: die Regel, etc. The term “regula” in Latin means also “rule” as in the Regula sancti Benediciti (Rule of Saint Benedict, 6th c., or the “rules” of the game, etc.), and the feminine first name Regula is common in Suisse-Germany and in Germany. Nota bene (11): Saint Felix and Saint Regula, 3rd century, are the Patron Saints of the City of Zürich in Switzerland.

Nature and the Liberal Arts: Now, concerning nature. In the long-standing tradition of knowledge of the liberal arts, we have, firstly, Plato’s major treatise Τμαιος ἢ περὶ Φύσεως М (Timaios or On nature [On the universe] 40 Books), a dialogue between Sokratis, Hemokratis, Timaios, and Critias on the σκοπός (skopos, i. e. the veritable nature) of the physical world and that of the eternal world.  At the end of this important treatise, Plato includes the only known written account of the legendary Continent Atlantis, recounted by Critias. Then, during the Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th century, the 5-Book treatise in dialogue form by John Scottus Eriugena (*ca. 810 – after 877) Peri Physeon,  [On nature | On the universe]. So, as we can observe, before the 4th century a. D., the traditional disciplines of the liberal arts did in fact include in their earlier stage several other important areas of research and pedagogy, which, over several centuries, gradually detached themselves from the original cycle of disciplines designed for the education and general culture of free citizens (“ ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία” | “αἱ λευθέριοι τέχναι”).

(¶10) Commentary | Question: Now, we know that true general culture is a deterrent force against criminality and terrorism, such as one observes today in the Middle-East. Could you give us then a little background on the intellectual contributions of Iraq, and the Arab world, as of the Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th century (?).

(¶11) Illo | Response: Yes indeed. Charlemagne (*ca. 747 –  814)  maintained diplomatic relations with the Caliph of Baghdad Haroun al-Rachid (Abbasside dynasty, *765 – 809), who sent to the Carolingian monarch at one occasion a white elephant named Aboul-Abbas.  Haroun laid the foundations for the great Bayt al-Hykma (M.-G. Balty-Guesdon, “Le Bayt al-Hikma de Baghdad”, in Arabica. Revue d’études arabes, 39, n° 2, 1992, p. 131-150), whose director was the philosopher Al-Kindi (*ca. 800 – ca. 870), and of which two of the protagonists were Al-Kwarizmi (ca. 850) the “inventor” of the algorithm, and Zyriab (Abu Al-Hassan Ali ben Nafi, *789 857), the famous Kurd musician-philosopher. Then, in the 12th century, we have Averroes (Abu’l-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd, *1126 1198), a 12th century Arab Muslim philosopher polymath, Maimonides (HaRav Moshe ben Maimoun, or The Rambam,1138-1204), a 12th-century Jewish medical doctor and philosopher both born, in Southern Spain, in Andalusia,  in the city of Córdoba, Ibn Rushd died in Marrakesh, Marocco, and Maimonides died in Egypte. These philosophers, scientists, and teachers, along with al-Ghazali (Abū Hāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī, *Tus, Iran, 1058 – Tus, Iran 1111), guided the Unity of thought in the Universities of Paris and Naples, influenced the teachings of Saint Thomas of Aquinas, and shaped the Unity of culture of the 12th and 13th centuries and beyond, covering a vast geographical area of the Middle-East, Africa, Europe, etc.

 (¶12) Illo | Lecture: The university is above all an urban concept. It comes into being, generally, due to a combination of factors, among which are: demographic explosion of urban centres, political power mutations, meteorological conditions, technological progress, economic growth,  fluvial proximity, and, most importantly, a universal common language.

(¶13) Commentary:  Indeed, at the University of Paris, for example, the universal common language was mediæval Latin, which was the language spoken in the classroom as well as in the entire university area of the left bank of the Seine river, called, rightly so, the “Latin Quarter” (“vicus latinus”), as mediæval Latin was there spoken.

(¶14) Commentary | Question:  Were there minorities, such as Jews in the making of the history of France, of Paris, and of its school-university environment (?).

(¶15) Illo | Response: Indeed so. It must be remembered that the Jews were loyal allies of Julius Caesar, and consequently received from him special privileges for the exercise of their religion and commerce (Benjamin Pin, Jérusalem contre Rome, Paris, 1938). Already in the first century before the Christian Era, the Jews were present in Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris), and were implanted on the right bank in the quarter called the “Marais”, and indeed, the Jewish quarter of today is still in the Marais. The Jews therefore constitute one of the fundamental and primitive communities of the civitas Parisiorum. Then, we know that Charlemagne’s Ambassador sent in 797 to the Caliph Haroun al-Rachid of Baghdad was Jewish, a trilingual interpreter whose name was Isaac (H. H. Milman, The History of the Jews, from the earliest period down to modern Times, Vol. III, New York: Hurd & Houghton, Boston: Willleam Veazie, 1865, p. 144).  Jewish philosophers and scientists, such as Maimonides (1135–1204) and Gersonides (*1288–1344-1370), made indelible contributions to the mediaeval university (C. Taliaferro, P. Draper, P. Quinn, eds., A Companion to Philosophy and Religion, Ch. 11, p. 106-113, Oxford, 2010); notwithstanding, the Jewish community suffered periodically severe persecution during the mediaeval and Renaissance periods, for example during the “Black Plague” (1348-1350), etc., and during the 16th and 17th centuries, just as the Protestants during the well-known Saint Bartholomew’s day massacre, that is to say the 24th of August 1572, and was instigated by the Queen-Mother Catherine de Medici, the wife of the late King Henri II, son of King François Ier.

(¶16) Commentary: Catherine de Medici, notwithstanding, was indeed a learned woman, [descendant of the great philanthropist and protector of the arts and sciences Cosimo di Giovanni de’[gli] Medici, Cosimo “il Vecchio” (the Elder), Pater Patriae,  of Florence, *1389 – 1464].  Now,  were there also learned women of the mediaeval period as well (?).

(¶17) Illo | Response: Indeed, there were !, cf. Bibliography (Juliet Sloger): The following are three examples of very learned women, all three of the Benedictine Order, versed in the artes liberales, in philosophy, science,  music, theology, liturgy, history, literature, proto-philology, etc., all three very attentive disciples, so to speak, of Boethius:

(a) Hroswitha von Gandersheim (*935 – ca. 973-1002 [?]), German Benedictine canoness, poet, dramatist, historian of the Ottonian Renaissance • Bibliography: cf. Lina Eckenstein (†1931), Woman under monasticism: chapters on saint-lore and convent life between a. D. 500 and a. D. 1500, Cambridge University Press, 1896, xv, 496 pages, see Chapter V, Convents in Saxon Lands between a. D. 800-1000, subsection nr. 1: Women’s convent in Saxony, p. 143, subsection nr. 2: Early History of Gandersheim, p. 154, subsection nr. 3: The Nun Hrotsvith and her Writings, p. 160-183; cf. full text at the web site of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Digital Collections: TEI Edition, March 3, 2003:; Paul K. R. von Winterfeld (critical edition), Hrotsvithae opera. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum germanicarum, Berlin (Wiedmann), 1902, Proœmium p. III, IV, V;; K. Strecker, (ed.). Hrotsvithae opera, 2nd ed. Leipzig (Teubner), 1930; H. Hohmeyer (ed.), Hrotsvithae Opera, Munich, Paderborn, Wien (Schöningh), A. L. Haight, Hroswitha of Gandersheim her life, times, and works, and a comprehensive bibliography, New York (Hroswitha Club), 1965; 1970; Bert Nagel, Hrotsvit von Gandersheim: Sämtliche Dichtungen, München (Winkler), 1966; H. Hohmeyer (ed.), Hrotsvitha von Gandersheim. Werke in deutscher Übertragung, Munich, 1973; K. M. Wilson, “The Saxon Canoness Hrotsvit of Gandersheim”, in Medieval Women Writers, K. M. Wilson (ed.),  Athens, Georgia, 1984, p. 31-62; L. Moulinier, “H comme Histoire: Hrotsvita, Hildegarde et Herrade, trois récits de fondation au féminin”, in Clio, numéro 2, 1995, Femmes et Religions, cf. URL:; M. Goullet, (ed.), Hrotsvita. Théâtre, texte établi, traduit et commenté, Paris (Les Belles Lettres), 1999. In-8°, CXXXVIII-301 pages; M. Goullet, (ed.), Hrotsvita de Gandersheim. Oeuvres poétiques Xe siècle, présentation et traduction, suivies du texte latin. Grenoble (Éd. Million), 2000, In-8°, 349 pages; Walter Berschin, (ed.). Hrosvit: Opera Omnia, Munich (Saur), 2001; P. Ranft, Women in Western intellectual Culture, 600-1500, New York (MacMIllan), 2002, p. 26-34; P. R. Brown, K. M. Wilson, L. A. McMillin (eds.), Hrotsvit of Gandersheim, Contexts, Identities, Affinities, and Performances, Toronto, Buffalo, London, 2004; U. Wiethaus, “Body and Empire in the Works of Hrotsvit of Gandersheim”, in Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, Volume 34, Number 1, Winter 2004, p. 41-63; S. L. Wailes, Spirituality and politics in the  Hrostvit of Gandersheim, Cranbury, NJ, 2006, Bibliography: p. 11-14, Chapter 13: Thais, p. 181-189, Chapter 15: Deeds of Otto (Gesta Ottonis), p. 205-216; Illo Humphrey, Boethius. His influence on the European Unity of Culture: from Alcuin of York (804) to Thierry of Chartres (1154), Nordhausen (Bautz Verlag), 2010 | 2012; see Chapter 9: “Boethius and Hrotsvitha Gandersheimensis (*935 – ca. 973-1002)”, p. 157-165; •

(b) Herrade de Landsberg (*1125 – 1195), French Benedictine Abbess of Hohenburg [Mont Sainte-Odile], France • Bibliography: cf. Lina Eckenstein (†1931), Woman under monasticism: chapters on saint-lore and convent life between a. D. 500 and a. D. 1500, Cambridge University Press, 1896, xv, 496 pages, see Chapter VII, p. 222, subsection nr. 1: Art Industries in the Nunnery, p. 238, subsection nr. 2: Herrad and the ‘Garden of Delights’; cf. full text at the web site of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Digital Collections: TEI Edition, March 3, 2003:; Chapter VII (subsection 2) Herrad and the ‘Garden of Dilights’:; Fiona J. Griffiths, The Garden of Delights: Reform and renaissance for women in the twelfth century, (The Middle Ages series). Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania Press), 2007, 381 pages, 18 pages of Plates: Illustrations); R. Green, M. Evans, C. Bischoff, C. Curshmann, Herrad of Hohenburg, Hortus deliciarum. Vol. 1: Reconstruction | Vol. 2: Commentary, London (Warburg Institute | University of London), Leiden (Brill), 1979; L. Moulinier, “H comme Histoire: Hrotsvita, Hildegarde et Herrade, trois récits de fondation au féminin”, in Clio, numéro 2, 1995, Femmes et Religions, cf. URL:; Guylène Hidrio, “Philosophie et Sagesse divine dans les premières enluminures du De Consolatione Philosophiae de Boèce (Xe-XIe siècles): une lecture chrétienne du traité de Boèce”, in Colloquia Aquitana II – 2006 Boèce, ([Boethius], Rome, ca. 480 – Pavie, 524): l’homme, le philosophe, le scientifique, son oeuvre et son rayonnement, Illo Humphrey (ed.), Paris (Éditions Le Manuscrit), 2009, Volume I, p. 234 (n. 63);; •

(c) Hildegard von Bingen (*1098 – 1179),  “Sybil of the Rhine”, German Benedictine Abbess and Founder of the Rupertsberg Cloister 1147-1179, Bingen-am-Rhein, Germany 55411 • Bibliography: cf. Lina Eckenstein (†1931), Woman under monasticism: chapters on saint-lore and convent life between a. D. 500 and a. D. 1500, Cambridge University Press, 1896, xv, 496 pages, see Chapter VIII, p. 256, Prophecy and Philanthropy: Saint Hildegard of Bingen and Saint Elizabeth of Schönau; cf. full text at the web site of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Digital Collections: TEI Edition, March 3, 2003:; Chapter VIII, Prophecy and Philanthropy: Saint Hildegard of Bingen and Saint Elizabeth of Schönau:; Hildegardis Bingensis, Opera minora,  H. Feiss, C. Evans, B. M. Kienzle, C. Muessig, B. Newman, P. Dronke, (eds.), in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis 226, Turnhout (Brepols), 2007; B. Newman, Symphonia armoniae celestium revelationum, 2nd edition, Ithaca, NY, 1998; L. Moulinier, “H comme Histoire: Hrotsvita, Hildegarde et Herrade, trois récits de fondation au féminin”, in Clio, numéro 2, 1995, Femmes et Religions, cf. URL:; M. McGrade, “Hildegard von Bingen”, in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopaldie der Musik, 2nd ed., Vol. 2, Vol. 8, ed. L. Fischer, Kassel | Stuttgart: Bärenreiter und Metzler, 1994; Scivias [Scito vias Domini], C. Hart, J. Bishop, New York, 1990; Patrologiae cursus completus. Series latina, Vol. 197, Paris, 1855); cf. Scivias Codex Facsimile on parchment, produced at the Hildegard Abbey in Eibingen, Germany  between 1927-1933 (the original manuscript, the Wiesbaden Codex, was lost, or destroyed,  in Dresden during World War II):; Hildegard von Bingen, Scivias, Adelgundis Führkötter et Angela Carlevaris (eds.), Turnhout (Brepols), CCCM, 43-43A, 1978; Beverly Mayne Kienzle, (ed.), Hildegard von bingen. Homilies on the Gospels, English translation, Introduction, Notes, Cistercian Studies Series Number 241, Cistercian Publication, Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, 2011:

Bibliography: Minnis (Alastair), Voaden (Rosalynn), eds., Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition c.1100-c.1500, xi + 748 p., 3 b/w ills., 156 x 234 mm, Turnhout (Brepols), 2010, BCEEC 1, HB, ISBN 978-2-503-53180-9 • Nota bene (12):  This is the first comprehensive survey of the major – but much neglected – contribution made by holy women to the religious culture of the later Middle Ages. Indeed,  Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition offers the first wide-ranging study of the remarkable women who contributed to the efflorescence of female piety and visionary experience in Europe between 1100 and 1500. This volume offers essays by prominent scholars in the field which extend the boundaries of our previous knowledge and understanding of medieval holy women. While some essays provide new perspectives on the familiar names of the unofficial canon of mulieres sanctae, many others bring into the spotlight women less familiar now, but influential in their own time and richly deserving of scholarly attention. The five general essays establish a context for understanding the issues affecting female religious witness in the later Middle Ages. The geographical arrangement of the volume allows the reader to develop an awareness of the particular cultural and religious forces in seven different regions and to recognize how these influenced the writing and reception of the holy women of that area. Seventeen major figures have essays devoted exclusively to each of them; in addition, the survey chapters on each region introduce the reader to many more. The extensive bibliographies which follow each chapter encourage further reading and study • Nota bene (13):  Alastair Minnis was Director of the Centre for Medieval Studies and Head of the Department of English at the University of York, and is currently Douglas Tracy Smith Professor of English at Yale University. A Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America and of the English Association, he is the author of six monographs and the editor or co-editor of fifteen further volumes • Nota bene (14):  Rosalynn Voaden (D.Phil., University of York, UK) is the author of God’s Words, Women’s Voices: The Discernment of Spirits in the Writing of Late-Medieval Women Visionaries, and is the editor or co-editor of several volumes in the field. She was a Research Fellow at St Anne’s College, Oxford, and is currently Associate Professor of English at Arizona State University; •

(¶18) Illo | Lecture (Epilogue): This modest lecture-dialogue is designed firstly to ask fundamental questions concerning (a) education and general culture ( παιδεία, Werner Wilhem Jaeger, Paideia the Ideals of Greek Culture, Oxford, 1939/1986), (b) civilization management and development, that is to say Public Administration. Secondly, to propose a complementary cognitive twin to the already remarkable Technology Incubator of UCF, that is to say a dynamic General culture Incubator. Lastly, its purpose is to provide the readers and participants with a total pedagogical experience in mediæval studies, at the basis of which was one of the principal intellectual and cognitive pillars in the elaboration of the European mediæval university (i. e. Studium generale | pl. Studia generalia: 11th and 12th centuries, or Uniuersitas magistrorum atque scholarium uel discipulorum [discipularumque]: as of the 13th century), and indeed one of the principal pillars of modern civilization management and development, that is to say Anicius Manlius Torquatus Seuerinus Boethius.  • Explicit

© Illo Humphrey, PhD | HDR | Mediævalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist | 2010 •

Orlandae die lunae nonis aprilis anno Domini C bis millesimo decimo •

(Orlando, Monday, the Nones of April, i.e. April 5, year of the Lord C, 2010)

~  •  ~

Cæna perfecta


 • •

Ecce autem nos ad cænam congregati iterum•

Inter Πυθαγόραν•  Πλάτωνα• eorumque heredem ex asse Boethium


Quam singulæ dapes•

το ριθμο πιστμη τς ψυχῆς οσα et musicæ essentia

Quam promulsis• quam cibus delectabilis• quam dulcia celestis •

Quam cæna suauis• librata• coquibilis •

Ah !  Quam aroma• ita uero agitur de substantia scientifica •

 Festiue quidem excipimus ad uiuendum septem artes liberales

ac eis gaudendum easque canendum •

Epulemur itaque in azymis ueritatis hanc cænam•

et uerum symposium• non sine mero• floribus et caprifica •

Comitataque toto conuiuio potione calida•


cum thea uiridi philosophica •

cum thea uiridi philosophica •

~  •  ~

The Perfect Repast


 Here they are once again reunited with us

Πυθαγόρας•  Πλάτων  and their natural heir Boethius

Ah !  What a menu:

the science of number• the substance of the soul• the essence of music •

What an entrée• what a main dish• what a fine dessert •

Oh ! how tasty•  well-balanced and digestible• this repast •

Ah !  What spiritual and scientific substance it has •

Indeed• feast we with joy in order to live the seven liberal arts

to rejoice in them• and by them  be free •

So• Let’s partake of it then• the true bread of this repast• a veritable banquet•

with vintage wine• flowers• and glee •

Accompanied must it be throughout• however•

with a green• unfermented• philosophical tea

with a green• unfermented• philosophical tea

~ • ~

  Le Repas Parfait


 Nous voilà réunis une fois de plus

 Autour de ΠυθαγόραςΠλάτων• et leur héritier naturel Boethius •

  Ah ! Quel menu singulier :

 la science du nombrela substance de l’âmel’essence de la musique

 Quelle entrée • quel plat garni • quel dessert céleste •

Quel repas savoureux • équilibré et combien digeste •

Ah ! Quel parfum qui nourrit de sa substance• de son zeste •

  Certes• festoyons-nous tous• afin de se régaler des sept arts libéraux

  de nous en réjouir• et de les chanter en harmoniques •

 Alors, partageons donc le vrai pain de ce repas• véritable banquet•

  servi avec du vin mûr • spirituel• scientifique •

  Accompagné doit-il être tout au long• toutefois•

  d’un thé vert pur• innocent• philosophique •

 d’un thé vert pur• innocent• philosophique •

 ~ ~

  Die vollkommene Mahlzeit


 Hier sind wir also widerversammelt• zum Schluss •

 Unter Πυθαγόραν•  Πλάτωνα• und ihren natürlichen Erbe Boethius •

  Ach ! Welch eine sonderliche Speisekarte :

 Zahlwissenschaft• Substanz der Seele• Musikwesen-Genuss •

 Welch eine Vorspeise• welch eine Hauptspeise• welch ein himmlischer Nachtisch•

 Welch ein geschmackvolles Essen• so ausgeglichen• so bekömmlich •

 Ach ! Welch ein Duft• welch ein Wohlgeruch• der uns vollkommen ernährt• geistlich •

  Doch kommen wir zum Essen• um die sieben freie Künste zu genießen•

 uns auf sie zu freuen• und sie zu singen•

 Verteilen wir also das wahre Brot dieser Mahlzeit•

 echte Festtafel• mit Wein• Lamm• und Reh•

Begleitet aber musst sie werden durchaus

  von einem grünen• ungesäuerten• philosophischen Tee •

 von einem grünen• ungesäuerten• philosophischen Tee •

~ • ~

  • © Illo Humphrey, PhD | HDR | 2024 •

• Mediævalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist | Concert-Baritone | 2024 •

• Mise à jour | Updated | Aktualiziert | Aggiornamento | 5-I-2024 •

• (die veneris nonis ianuariis• anno Domini intercalario GF• bis millesimo vicesimo quarto) •

• (Vendredi, les nones de janvier,  l’an de Grâce bissextile GF, 2024) •

• Litterae dominicales GF, Aureus numerus 11, Epactæ IX, Indictio II •

• (Lettres dominicales GF, Nombre d’or 11, Épactes IX, Indiction 2) •



• Member of •

• Member of the International Boethius Society •

• Member of the Medieval Academy of America •

• Member of Musicologie Médiévale •

• Member of APEMUTAM •

• Member of the ADPC •

• Member of the ASDAL •

• •

~  •  ~